map eu ets

European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS)

The cornerstone of the EU strategy to fight climate change

Discover how Europe’s most polluting industries have reduced by 47% their CO2 emissions, and how you can contribute to it.

In a few words

The EU Emissions Trading System charges emitters for their greenhouse gas emissions, thereby reducing CO2 emissions and generating revenue to finance the EU's environmental transition.

11 297

installations covered
across 29 countries


of EU CO2 emissions
covered by EU ETS

1 285

millions tons of CO2
equivalent in 2022

Who is concerned?

The EU Emissions Trading System covers 40% of EU CO2 emissions.

The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) strategically targets sectors that contribute significantly to the overall carbon footprint of the European Union.

Including industries responsible for a substantial portion of EU emissions, such as energy production, steel and cement manufacturing, and aviation, this initiative covers approximately 40% of the total CO2 emissions within the EU.

By focusing on these key sectors, the EU aims to effectively address the most significant contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, thereby maximizing the impact of emission reduction efforts and advancing the transition to a more sustainable future.

A budget cap designed to reduce CO2 emissions

At its core, the EU ETS employs a “cap-and-trade” mechanism to regulate greenhouse gas emissions across various industries. Initially, the EU sets a cap on the total amount of emissions within covered sectors, which represent a significant portion of the EU's carbon footprint.

Since its inception, the EU ETS has achieved remarkable success in curbing greenhouse gas emissions. Between 2010 and 2023, the emissions regulated under the EU ETS witnessed a substantial reduction of -37% (-47% since 2005). This impressive decline underscores the effectiveness of the EU's emission reduction efforts.

graph co2 emisssions

The EU ETS incentivizes emissions reductions, encourages investment in cleaner technologies, and facilitates the transition to a low-carbon economy, ultimately spearheading global efforts to address climate change.

The market mechanism

Emission of allowances

The European Commission sets a cap on the total amount of allowable emissions within covered sectors. Based on this cap, EU allocates emissions allowances to the regulated industries at the beginning of each year.

Learn more about allowances allocation

Surrender of allowances

In September of each year, industries must surrender to the European Commission as many allowances as CO2 emitted during the year, otherwise heavy fines are imposed. The compliance rate is over 97%

Pricing carbon

These allowances can be bought, sold, or traded among participants, fostering a market-based approach to emissions reduction. Industries can purchase allowances from the European Commission at daily auctions: the primary market. Or trade them with other participants: the secondary market. The price of allowances evolves constantly based on supply and demand. As the supply reduces over time, the price of allowances increases.

Learn more about the market mechanism

The carbon price is the trade-off value for decarbonization investments.

When the value of allowances increases, industries have a stronger incentive to invest in decarbonization to avoid the cost of emissions. It is estimated that increasing the price of a quota by 1€ per tonne leads to an average reduction of 0.73% of emissions over time.

By holding permits and reducing the available supply, investors put pressure on prices.

Learn more about price drivers

Discover real projects that  has been financed by the EU ETS

IRIS - Greece

Innovative low carbon hydrogen and methanol productIon by large Scale carbon capture.

MaPrimeRénov’ - France

Energy-efficient home renovation.

EVEREST - Germany

Improved calcination and carbon capture for the largest lime plant in Europe.

Climate Change is the most important problem of our time, and its up to our generation to solve it.

Investing in Homaio presents a unique opportunity to directly contribute to the acceleration of emission reduction efforts in EU ETS. As a company focused on sustainable investments in European Union Allowances (EUAs), Homaio redirect capital into the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), a pivotal initiative in the fight against climate change.

By investing in EUAs through Homaio, individuals not only gain access to a lucrative financial opportunity but also become active participants in the transition to a low-carbon economy. Therefore, investing in Homaio not only promises financial returns but also drives tangible environmental impact by accelerating the reduction of emissions within the EU, contributing to a more sustainable future for generations to come.

Join the climate finance movement now

Now you have well understand this market and strategy, you can be part of it and participate to the emission reduction of Europe.

Dive into Carbon markets

What is Homaio’s mission ?

Homaio wants to massively steer capital towards assets that effectively reduce emissions. It does so by unlocking compliance carbon markets for individual investors. Starting with European Union Allowances and gradually expanding to other emissions trading schemes around the world, it opens an entire new asset class designed for impact and returns to climate-conscious investors globally.

What is carbon pricing ?

Carbon pricing is generally considered to be the fairest and most effective way of curbing greenhouse gas emissions. It seeks to put a price on carbon emissions. Carbon emissions are a cost to society in the form of global warming, and carbon pricing aims at shifting that cost back to emitters. Emitters therefore face a trade-off between reducing their emissions or paying for their costs. As carbon prices increase, so do incentives to reduce emissions. This fuels systemic changes in production, consumption, and investment patterns at scale.

What is the difference between carbon offsets, allowances, and credits ?

These terms refer to entirely different markets. Carbon credits and carbon offsets refer to the removal or avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions in the voluntary carbon market. For example, by planting a tree (removal) or by switching from a woodfire cookstove to a cleaner cookstove (avoidance). Carbon credits are sold by the project developer to an individual or a corporation that wishes to offset their emissions. It’s an unregulated market which has witnessed its fair share of controversies. Carbon allowances are standardized trading units in regulated carbon markets. They represent the right to emit one ton of greenhouse gas by an industrial polluter within the issuing market. They have a capped supply, equivalent to the market’s carbon budget. That supply is gradually reduced, which progressively increases the value of each allowance and reduces emissions.

How do I invest in carbon allowances ?

Homaio unlocks the carbon allowance market for individual investors. We're currently invite-only, accepting European investors looking to invest in assets designed for both impact and returns on an ongoing basis. If this sounds like you, you can register on the site or email and we'll be in touch very soon.

Since you arrived on this website,
European factories emitted
tons of CO2
into the atmosphere
(1285 million of tons of CO2 in 2022
represents an average of 40 tons per second)